Title: The Relationship between Value Orientations and Decision-Making Styles for the Principals in High School Level, Shirvan
Fariman Ebrahimzadeh 1
Ali Mokhtari 2
A'azam Akbarpour 3
The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between value orientations and decision-making styles for the principals in high school level, Shirvan. This study is descriptive –inferential using surveying method. The statistical population (n=39 female and male) includes the principals in high school level in Shirvan. The whole population was sampled due to the limits. The Alport Standard Questionnaire for value scales as well as decision-making -style questionnaire for the principals are used
Keywords: value orientation, scientific orientation, economic orientation, aesthetic orientation, social orientation, political orientation, religious orientation and decision –making style
On the whole decision-making is a mental process which all humans are involved in their whole lives. Decision-making process is fulfilled under light of culture, perceptions, beliefs, values, orientations, personalities, knowledge and vision of a person. All these interact. In modern management decision-making is often defined as the problem-solving process. One can say that decision-making process results in all human activities (Moheyeddini 2009).
Man has to make decision in his or her life while seeking scales to do that. Value scales facilitate choice and decision-making. Historically man has been involved in value issues (Peterson 1976:37-38).
Vale as a social phenomenon played an important role from the primitive human until now and is regarded as a significant dimension of personality and social life (Schuartz 2002).
In fact, values determine specific frameworks to inspire community how to behave or how to response properly. They determine and orient behavior in a certain situation or in a workplace (Alport et al 1960).
1.Department of Management, Shirvan Branch,Islamic azad University, shirvan,Iran
2. Assistant professor in Ferdowsi University, Mashhad
3. M.A. student in educational management course ,Bojnurd Branch,Islamic azad University, Bojnurd,Iran
1.2.1 Domestic Studies
Alami (2009) studied scales and types of values and the relationship between value orientations and social class. The statistical population (n=1905 both female and male) includes Tabriz Azad University students in B.S. different courses. The sample group (n=582) was selected randomly using proportionate stratified method based on gender and affiliation to the university departments using Cochran Formula. The results showed that based on the averaged scores students have given to the values inventory, their priorities are as follows: social value, religious value, theoretical value, economic value, political value and aesthetic value. Kolmogrov-Smirnov one-dimensional test showed that variable of value orientation of students varies significantly from normal distribution. Fridman Non-parametrical Test also showed significant variation in value orientation ranking. Various statistical tests indicate significant relationship between religious value and social class.
Mehravaran (2001) studied the six value scales (theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political and religious) and their relationship with decision-making style of principals. The statistical population (n=141) included the principals of male primary schools, region 3 using simple selection method for the sample selection. The questionnaire was delivered limitedly due to low population and the study was descriptive with correlation type. The study shows that:
-There is an inverse relationship between theoretical value and consulting decision-making model.
-There is an inverse relationship between economic value and consulting decision-making model.
-There is an inverse relationship between aesthetic value and consulting decision-making model.
-There is direct relationship between social value and participative decision-making model.
-There is an inverse relationship between social value and authoritative decision-making model.
-There is a direct relationship between political value and authoritative decision-making model.
-There is a direct relationship between religious value and participative decision-making model.
-There is a direct relationship between authoritative value and participative decision-making model.
-There is a direct relationship between consulting and participative decision-making model.
Adibisedad (1999) studied the relationship between value scales based on Alport Model and decision-making styles of principals based on Tannenbaum-Schmidt and Vroom-Yetton decision-making models. The statistical population (n=250) included high school teachers and principals in regions 2, 3 and 5 in Isfahan using proportionate and stratified method to select the sample group simply from the population. The respondents replied Alport Standard Questionnaire of Value Scales and a questionnaire for evaluating the principals' views towards decision-making styles. The data was analyzed inferentially using independent (t) test, two-directional variance and multivariate regression. It was concluded that there are positive and significant relationship between value scales (theoretical, economic, social, aesthetic, political and religious) and decision-making styles (authoritative, participative and consulting) for the principals. Female and male principal trends in this analysis in terms of decision-making styles (except consulting style) and their orientations to the values (except social values) and self value scale system formation varied functionally.
1.2.2 Foreign Studies
Hill Boyram (2009) studied the relationship between values in views of science teachers. The statistical population was 281 science teachers who responded to Alport Standard Questionnaire. The findings showed that they preferred economic value rather than religious value.
Lowan (2003) studied the impact of culture on decision-making styles and concluded that employer expectation of their managers or leaders differs depending on type of dominant culture and it consequently leads to appropriate leadership style. There have been different results for the studies performed in many countries such as Japan, Indonesia, Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland, UK, Denmark, USA, Holland and Sweden. Many French managers believed that they have to respond accurately to their employees' questions to secure the trust of them while American managers believed differently and maintained that their task is not to respond all the cases because this interrupts creativity and innovation but their task is to help the employees in order that they can find solutions for themselves. Japanese managers maintained that accountability is culturally important.
Focoda et al (1996) distributed Alport Value Scale Questionnaire among 92306 nurse students and they explored conscious and non-conscious value orientations. The result showed that political orientation was the highest and economic orientation was the lowest value orientations with positive orientation to religious values for the students.
Alport (1970) examined value orientations among 3778 students and concluded that on average, religious, political and economic values rates were higher than other values rates (theoretical, social and aesthetic). Religious and aesthetic values are also more scattered.
2. Value Definition
Value is defined as an ideological practice by an individual or community against which all behaviors are characterized and idealized (Roche 1924 translated by Zanjanizadeh 2008:74).
Value is an aesthetic view for judging about the good and evil of things. We compare things and judge about their values or their good and evil as their positive and negative values. Thus, value refers to good and evil or ugliness and beauty of things (Shariatmadari 1978).
Value means worthiness people believe exists for opinions and things around them (Nikzad 1996:59).
2.1 Types of Values
2.1.1 Values man tends to
Intrinsic Values: values with spontaneous worthiness such as beauty of a flower or a view and value of relaxation and comfort.
Extrinsic values: these values can be referred to instrument values and their worthiness roots from their attributes to things having no intrinsic values by themselves. For example, comfort is a state resulting from things such as money, cloths, shoes and home so on.
Absolute Values: absolute means constant for everyone, everywhere and every time. Some thinkers maintain that certain values dealing with main human rights are absolutely valuable such as freedom, democracy and justice or absolutely not valuable such as dictatorship, arrest and captivity, war and cruelty.
Relative Values: all values, good and evil, beauty and ugliness are relative in practice and are exposed to change over time. Family members, friends, teachers and external groups all impact on personal values. In fact values result from training and experience in the dominant culture.
Terminal Values: they indicate the goals an individual wants to achieve when they live such as pleasure, sense of achievement and salvation (Shermerhorn et al 1999 translated by Irannejad et al:80).
2.2 Psychological Theorists
2.2.1 Ashpranger Theory
Edward Ashpranger (1955) categorized teenagers in terms of their value orientation as follows:
- Type of teenager who cares about his or her health, vividness and requires power
- Psychological mood of teenagers are mostly passionate and crazy for beauty
- Contemplative type believing that life is a problem
- Active type caring more for values such as achievement and success
- Adventurous type tending to domination over others and reputation
- Social type and altruist
- Ethical type with a great passion and willing for ethics
- Religious type is seen in various forms in teenagers (Ahoarinejad 1994)
2.2.2 Gordon Alport Theory
Alport classifies people as six groups as follows:
Economical type: mainly active and practical seeking more wealth to overcome others. This orientation contradicts with other values.
Aesthetic type: aesthetic people prefer coordination and regularity, believing that life constitutes a series of events and he or she enjoys every experience (what exists). Aesthetic type in a sense is in contrast to conceptual type because the former tends to various experiences but the later tends to experience integrity.
Social type: to love people and altruism is the highest value for this group
Political type: power is attractive for this group. This group seeks dominance over others everywhere he or she works.
Religious type: This group values unity as the highest value seeking mystics and trying to contemplate the whole existence.
2.3 Sociologic theorists
2.3.1 Klukhon- Strandberg theory:
This theory deals with five main human issues:
1. Human nature definition
2. Human relation with nature
3. Privileged item of time
4. How human is active
5. People interpersonal relationship
They concluded that:
- Every community chooses one solution from above
- Different solutions are used in communities
- Various values allows various adjustments by one person
- Value systems in a society do not constitute only dominant values but incorporate a hierarchical altering and mixed set. Therefore, they must be considered when outlining the whole world of values for a certain community.
- When value changes it often results in developments in value hierarchy, that is, dominant values become weaker and are replaced with the developed ones (Roche 1924 translated by Zanjanizadeh:79).
2.3.2 Ingellhart theory:
This theory is outlined as follows: a set of changes in social systems (for example economic changes) results in changes in individual level (skills and values) which in turn have consequences in social system level. Ingellhart classifies values as material and non-material ones (Roche 1924 translated by Zanjanizadeh: 80).
2.3.3 Parsonz Theory:
Parsonz proposes a set of interrelated values as four factors. Following model is often referred repeatedly in Paronz' theory. Everything can be classified as an end or tool. These two items are internal or external. Then, we get following table:
Essential functions of every system
Low energy high data
High energy low data
3. Definition of Decision-making:
Decision-making refers to a practice or a choice after contemplation on solution of a problem or real issues (Fakhimi 2000:128).
Decision-making is a process to select a procedure to do something or a solution for a problem (Stoner 1983).
Decision-making is to choose a certain solution from a set of solutions for a problem (Griffin 1986).
Decision-making is to choose a path from two paths or multiple paths to achieve something or to reach an expected end (Trekde 1989).
Decision-making is a full process managers use to identify issues and to resolve them (Bartol and Martin 1978).
Decision-making is defined as consciously selection of a choice by a man based on his or her evaluation of a set of choices and then to conduct the selected choice (Abbaszadegan 2002).
In Frank Harrison's view, decision-making in any organization is a key managerial factor for accurate and successful conduction of activities. Kaufman maintains that today decision-making is a science, that is, first one must analyze the factors and situations and then the result is proposed as the best decision to the managers. In contrary to Kaufman, while Cooper emphasizes scientific aspect of decision-making, he maintains that decision-making is an intrinsic art similar to management or leadership art for man which must not be ignored (Fakhimi 2000).
3.1. Types of decision-making
3.1.1 Personal decisions
Manager's personal decision-making is analyzed in two parts. The first part is rational approach indicating that how managers try to make a decision. The second part is limitedly rational showing that how a decision encounters with limitations.
Managers in an organization make decisions rationally or intuitively. However, the decision-making is not exclusive for them but many parts and departments of the organization even other organizations involve in the process. External consistency of an organization and its internal structure impact on the decision-making process(Rajagopalan, Nadini, Abdul Rashid and Deepak Datta 1993:349).
3.1.2. Group Decision-making
The quality of group decision-making is superior to individual decision-making because there is more concentrated information and knowledge as well as diversity in group than in an individual. The relative advantage of group decision-making to individual decision-making depends on the group members (Cross 2001:86).
3.1.3. Intuitive decision-making
Sometimes you have just got to go with your gut feeling that you have a solution. Some believe that there is a 7th feeling in addition to other 6 feelings. Some others hold that a few people have this capability.
Intuitive decision-making relates to human unconsciousness irrelevant to past experiences (Behling, O. & Eckel, N.L. 1991:46).
More contemplation and experience impact on intuitive decision-making. However, it is not unique or specific. Intuitive decision-making relies more on experience and judgment rather than orderly logic or specific inferential reasoning (Eisenberg, Daniel J. 1984:80-90).
Intuitive decision-making is not based on intermediation or irrational thinking because manager is inspired by his or her acquired experiences unconsciously to identify an alternative solution (Wally, Stefan & J. Robert Baum 1994:560).
When there are a lot of ambiguities and complications, past experiences and judgment are essential components of problem-solving process (Issack, Thomas 1978:220-917).
3.2. Types of Decision-making based on Existing Information
3.2.1. Decision-making under certainty
It is practiced when all existing and effective factors are thought to be constant. In other words, decision-maker is aware of the consequence of the decision (Robbins 2000:690). Models for this decision-making are mathematical models such as cost-benefit analysis, classical optimum model, inventory control, substitution model, work assignment, linear programming and etc. (Gould 1987:30-93)
3.2.2. Decision-making under uncertainty
It is done when existing problem contains many uncontrolled variables with no prediction from the past due to unavailability of enough information in the past to estimate the situation so any measure to estimate them is not possible. This uncertainty is modeled using matrix. The decision is made intuitively or creatively. (Woodman et al 1993:292)
3.2.3. Decision-making under risk
It is used when existing problem consists of uncontrolled variables with no information about their past so it is not possible to estimate them. For example to design attack scenario in war time is considered risky (Woodman et al 1993:293).
3.4. Vroom-Yetton Decision-Making Styles
3.4.1. Authoritative Style: Manager has no confident to any subordinates because they are not allowed to participate in decision-making process. All decisions are made by the senior top managers and the decisions are hierarchically delivered to the lower levels of the organization. Subordinates have to function under fear, threat and punishment or sometimes reward with satisfaction exists only in physiologic level. This situation often leads to an unofficial organization which disagrees with the goals of the organization.
3.4.2. Participative or Group Style: Manager consults with group members and then makes decision properly. Manager and the members each have only one vote (Ghorbani 1998).
3.4.3. Consulting Styles: Manager shows great confidence to subordinates. Strategic and important decisions are made by top manager but manager consults with subordinates to make a proper decision (Feldman, Daniel & Hugh J. Arnold 1983).
3.5. Decision-making styles in view of Likert
3.5.1. Authoritative decision-making: All decisions are made by the manager. Likert believes that confidence and trust between manager and subordinates is the lowest I this system.
3.5.2. Consulting decision-making: Manager selects followers to help him or her to reach a decision and he or she requests the followers to help. The decision to select the consultants is still made by the manager.
3.5.3. Facilitative Decision-making style: Manager and his or her followers make jointly decisions and there is a great confidence and trust between them.
3.5.4 Assigned decision-making style: followers have optimum experience and information for making decisions or giving advice appropriately.
4. Method of Study: Based on the nature of research and its purpose, that is, assessing relationship between value orientations and decision-making styles for the principals of high schools in Shirvan, the present study is applied form in regard to its purpose and correlative in regard to the method employed for assessment.
4.1. Statistical population: the statistical population (n=39) includes principals (male and female) in high school level in Shirvan. Due to limitation, the whole population was selected.
4.2. Instrument for data collection: Alport standard Questionnaire was used to assess value orientations, the validity of which has been established previously in many studies in Iran. The reliability rate was 0.7 based on Cronbach Alpha Method.
SPSS ver.18 was used to document the data and then the data was arranged in two parts: descriptive and inferential. The correlation rate between variables was assessed using Pierson Correlation Coefficient, (t) test with independent samples as well as unilateral variance analysis.
4.3. The findings and conclusion
The statistical population included female principals (n=19) and male principals (n=20) mostly with B.A. degrees and 6-10 years experiences.
The main hypothesis of the study is: There is a relationship between 6 value orientations (theoretic, aesthetic, political, religious, economic and social) and decision-making styles of the principals.
There is a direct and significant relationship (0.702) between value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals (P<0.01) so the main hypothesis is established. In other words, there is a significant difference between value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals.
The minor hypothesis 1 is: There is a relationship between scientific value orientation and decision-making styles of the principals.
There is a direct and significant relationship (0.458) between scientific value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals (P<0.05) so the hypothesis is established. In other words, there is a significant difference between scientific value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals.
The minor hypothesis 2 is: There is a relationship between aesthetic value orientation and decision-making styles of the principals.
There is a direct and significant relationship (0.328) between aesthetic value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals (P<0.05) so the hypothesis is established. In other words, there is a significant difference between aesthetic value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals.
The minor hypothesis 3 is: There is a relationship between political value orientation and decision-making styles of the principals.
There is no relationship between political value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals (P>0.05) so the hypothesis is not established. In other words, there is not a significant difference between political value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals.
The minor hypothesis 4 is: There is a relationship between religious value orientation and decision-making styles of the principals.
There is a direct and significant relationship (0.346) between religious value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals (P<0.05) so the hypothesis is established. In other words, there is a significant difference between religious value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals.
The minor hypothesis 5 is: There is a relationship between economic value orientation and decision-making styles of the principals.
There is a direct and significant relationship (0.657) between economic value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals (P<0.01) so the hypothesis is established. In other words, there is a significant difference between economic value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals.
The minor hypothesis 6 is: There is a relationship between social value orientation and decision-making styles of the principals.
There is a direct and significant relationship (0.489) between social value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals (P<0.05) so the hypothesis is established. In other words, there is a significant difference between social value orientations and decision-making styles of the principals.
The findings showed that religious value orientation was dominant and the other values prevalence was scientific value, economic value, social value, aesthetic value and political value respectively.
There is also no significant difference in terms of gender, experience and education level for decision-making style of the principals
The findings also showed that there is a significant and direct relationship between theoretic, economic, social, aesthetic value orientations and decision-making styles for the principals and only there is not such relationship between political value orientation and decision-making style for the principals.
In brief, it must be noted that decision-making is very difficult today and manager has to attempt a great deal to perform this task properly. Since values impact implicitly or overtly on perceptions, views, motivations, attitudes, goals of people including principals in their workplaces and they are considered important components of organizational culture, on the whole one can say that values are ideally acceptable, bearing motivational force and they facilitate selection and decision-making.
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